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Section category:
Introduction
Section category: Introduction

CYP: Physical Health: Introduction

This section deals with some of the major physical health conditions experienced by children and young people after infancy. The chapter has been structured according to Box 1. Please note that sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are described separately from reproductive health (i.e. contraception and pregnancy) in terms of risk factors, prevalence, inequalities and when making …

Introduction

This section deals with some of the major physical health conditions experienced by children and young people after infancy. The chapter has been structured according to the outline below. Please note that sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are described separately from reproductive health (i.e. contraception and pregnancy) in terms of risk factors, prevalence, inequalities and when …

CYP: Best Start in Life: Introduction

This section describes perinatal and infant health (for definitions, see Box 1) in Hackney and the City of London. Perinatal and infant health are heavily dependent on the health of the mother during and immediately after pregnancy. For this reason, indicators of maternal health are also covered in this section. Key perinatal health outcomes include …

Alcohol – Definitions

There are two key sources which measure drinking levels: Local Alcohol Profiles England (LAPE) and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Consumption (AUDIT-C). Please note: both sources use classifications based on the previous CMO alcohol guidelines (and not those in Box 2) and will, therefore, underestimate the number the number and proportion of people drinking at …

Alcohol – Introduction

Alcohol is an accepted part of many cultures as a means of relaxation and celebration and can have a positive impact on social and community life. The alcohol industry provides employment through production, retail and the night-time economy. However, as a widely available intoxicant and potentially addictive substance, it lends itself to misuse and has …

Diet – Definitions

‘5-a-day’ – refers to UK government guidelines which recommend consumption of at least five portions of fruit and vegetables per day (400g). High fruit and vegetable intakes are an indicator of a healthy diet and they also correlate with lower risk of obesity and diet-related disease. Free sugars – sugars added to food or those …

Diet – Introduction

A good (‘healthy’) diet is essential for good health. Conversely, a poor (‘unhealthy’) diet can have lasting detrimental health impacts (see Box 1 for definitions used in this section). Diet is now the leading behavioural risk factor for illness and death in England.  An unhealthy diet can lead to undernutrition, faltering growth in children, tooth …

Physical activity – Definitions

Below are some working definitions of terminology used in this section. Obese – someone who is very overweight, with a lot of body fat. The most widely used method of measuring obesity is body mass index (BMI), which is a measure of whether a person is a healthy weight for their height. BMI is calculated …

Physical activity – Introduction

Physical inactivity contributes to one in six deaths in the UK and increases the risk of a wide range of health problems – including obesity, cardiovascular disease, colon cancer, hip fractures, depression and dementia.   Some estimates suggest that physical inactivity is responsible for twice as many deaths as obesity.   While it is not until adulthood …

Smoking – Definitions

CO validation – carbon monoxide (CO) validation is the most cost effective and least evasive method of measuring someone’s smoking status. CO validation rates are important markers of service data quality. CO validated 4 week quitter – the national outcome measure of stop smoking services is success rates at the four week post quit date. …