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Section category:
Causes and risks
Section category: Causes and risks

CYP: Causes and risk factors of non-communicable diseases in CYP

  Many of the local non-communicable public health priorities are the same in children as in adults. In fact, many of these childhood conditions are a risk factor for these conditions in adulthood – for instance, 80% of obese children grow up to become obese adults. [5]  More information about some of the risk factors underlying …

CYP: Causes and risk factors of common long-term conditions in CYP

Box 3:  Definitions used in this section Long-term conditions – chronic diseases for which there is currently no cure, and which are managed with drugs or other treatment Asthma – a condition of the lungs characterised by coughing, wheezing, chest tightness and breathlessness Diabetes mellitus – the most common form of diabetes, caused by a …

CYP: Physical Health: Causes and risk factors

This section provides information related to the causes and risk factors for common physical health related conditions in children and young people (CYP). The section is framed around the following topics: Communicable disease Non-communicable disease Obesity  Oral Health  Smoking, alcohol and substance misuse Reproductive health  Common long-term conditions Asthma  Epilepsy  Diabetes

CYP: Causes and risk factors of communicable disease in CYP

Communicable diseases are caused by infections that can be transmitted from person to person. Examples include measles, meningitis, influenza (‘flu’) and tuberculosis, as well as sexually transmitted infections (such as chlamydia) and HIV. For many communicable diseases, particularly those for which the consequences of infection can be serious, there is a programme of immunisation in …

CYP: Best Start in Life: Causes and Risk Factors: Maternal and infant nutrition

It is recommended that pregnant people take folic acid and vitamin D supplements throughout pregnancy (and post-natally if breastfeeding), as it is difficult to consume the required levels through diet alone (see Section 2.6). Folic acid is important to help prevent neural tube defects such as spina bifida in the baby, while vitamin D deficiency …

CYP: Best Start in Life: Causes and Risk Factors: Maternal mental health

Pregnant people with mental health problems have an increased risk of obstetric complications, preterm labour and lower infant birthweight.  The children of those who are stressed or anxious during pregnancy are more likely to be anxious themselves, or have symptoms of attention deficit or hyperactivity.  Maternal depression during the early years of a child’s life …

CYP: Best Start in Life: Causes and Risk Factors: Maternal smoking

Smoking is the single most important modifiable risk factor in pregnancy, accounting for one in 14 preterm deaths and one in three cases of SUDI. Not only does smoking increase the risk of infant mortality, it also accounts for one in five cases of low birthweight in babies carried to full term, and one in …

CYP: Best Start in Life: Causes and risk factors

There are a wide variety of factors that influence maternal, perinatal and infant health. Figure 2 summarises the most important maternal contributory factors. The Marmot Review commented that: ‘maternal health, including stress, diet, drug, alcohol and tobacco use during pregnancy, has significant influence on foetal and early brain development’ Note: NEET means a young person (age …

Alcohol – Causes and risk factors

In cultural terms, characterisations of the British drinking culture as one of excess are too simplistic. Frequent but moderate drinking is more common than is often acknowledged in policy debate. However, increasing risk drinking behaviours are found across a range of settings and contexts, including home drinking among older couples, and social gatherings of family …

Diet – Causes and risk factors

The most important individual risk factors for poor diet are ageing, ill health, eating disorders and socio-economic circumstances.  Many of these risk factors are described in the Inequalities section. There is growing recognition that people do not make dietary choices based on the full costs and benefits of these decisions.  Decisions over what, when and …