The number of trips taken each day is higher for those on higher than lower incomes in London. According to TfL, Londoners with an annual household income of less than £5,000 make approximately two trips per day on average, whereas those with annual household incomes over £100,000 make almost three trips per day.

The mode of transport used also varies with household income. Households with lower incomes tend to use the bus and walk more, whereas households with higher incomes make more trips as car drivers and cyclists and are also heavier users of the National Rail and tube networks (see Figure 5). 8

Figure 5: Trips per person per day (average day, seven-day week), by main mode and household income (2013/14)

Figure 5: Trips per person per day (average day, seven-day week), by main mode and household income (2013/14)

Source: London Travel Demand Survey. Reproduced from original report.

Hackney’s Scrutiny Commission on barriers to cycling found that residents living on social housing estates and on lower incomes were less likely to cycle than other residents. The commission also noted that these groups tend to face multiple barriers to cycling – such as cost, poor access to bike storage, lack of training and cycling clubs, lack of parental support for cycling, and perceived image problems associated with cycling. 9

There is also a socio-economic gradient in incidence of road traffic accidents among children, with children from social class V (most deprived) having five times the mortality rate from road traffic accidents as children from social class I (least deprived). 10  Local analysis for Hackney, using the MOSAIC tool,B revealed that the highest number of child and pedestrian casualties are in households described as ‘young people renting flats in high-density social housing’. 11

Residents living in deprived areas are also known to be disproportionately impacted by poor air quality and those from lower socio-economic groups are more likely to live near main roads and airports, thus increasing their risk of air pollution. 12 13  Hackney is one of the boroughs that has the highest proportion of its most deprived populations (top 30% deprived) in London’s areas of worst air quality. 14

Notes

  1. MOSAIC is a tool which divides the population into one of 15 categories and within these into 67 ‘geodemographic units’.
  2. MOSAIC is a tool which divides the population into one of 15 categories and within these into 67 ‘geodemographic units’.

References

  1. Transport for London, “London Travel Demand Survey,” 2015.
  2. Hackney Council, “Final Report of the Living in Hackney Scrutiny Commission: Cycling barriers for Hackney communities,” 2014.
  3. Faculty of Public Health, “Transport & health: Briefing statement,” 2013.
  4. Hackney Council, “Hackney Transport Strategy 2015-2025,” 2016.
  5. Faculty of Public Health, “Transport & health: Briefing statement,” 2013
  6. London Climate Change Partnership, “Linking environment and health: A resource for policy and decision makers working on Joint Strategic Needs Assessment,” 2012.
  7. K. King and S. Healy, “Analysing Air Pollution Exposure in London: Report to Greater London Authority,” 2013.
  8. Transport for London, “London Travel Demand Survey,” 2015.
  9. Hackney Council, “Final Report of the Living in Hackney Scrutiny Commission: Cycling barriers for Hackney communities,” 2014.
  10. Faculty of Public Health, “Transport & health: Briefing statement,” 2013.
  11. Hackney Council, “Hackney Transport Strategy 2015-2025,” 2016.
  12. Faculty of Public Health, “Transport & health: Briefing statement,” 2013
  13. London Climate Change Partnership, “Linking environment and health: A resource for policy and decision makers working on Joint Strategic Needs Assessment,” 2012.
  14. K. King and S. Healy, “Analysing Air Pollution Exposure in London: Report to Greater London Authority,” 2013.