The growth in population, housing and employment, both within the local area and in neighbouring boroughs, has obvious implications for transport demand and for congestion on Hackney and the City’s busy transport network.

Poor air quality resulting from vehicle emissions in congested areas is harmful to health. In 2010, an estimated 9,416 deaths in Londoners were attributable to long-term exposure to NO2 (nitrogen dioxide) and PM2.5 (particulate matter 2.5). 5 Local estimates for Hackney suggest that as many as 7% of all deaths in 2014 can be attributed to air pollution – there are high rates of mortality attributable to air pollution across central London. 6  Air pollution can affect lung function, exacerbate asthma and increase cardiovascular and respiratory disease. 7

Traffic can also cause noise pollution, which has a number of health and wellbeing consequences. The most prevalent negative effect of noise is annoyance, but there are a number of other effects including sleep disturbance, hearing impairment, heightened cortisol in the blood (a marker of stress) and, impairment of cognitive performance in children, as well as increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease in those exposed long-term to noise pollution. 8

References

  1. H. Walton, D. Dajnak and S. Beevers, “Understanding the Health Impacts of Air Pollution in London,” King’s College London, 2015.
  2. Public Health England, “Public Health Outcomes Framework: Indicator 3.01 – Fraction of mortality attributable to particulate air pollution,” [Online]. Available: http://www.phoutcomes.info/public-health-outcomes-framework#page/3/gid/1000043/pat/6/par/E12000007/ati/102/are/E09000012/iid/30101/age/230/sex/4. [Accessed November 2016].
  3. Greater London Authority, “Better Environment, Better Health: A GLA guide for London’s Boroughs, London Borough of Hackney,” 2013.
  4. Ad Hoc Expert Group on Noise and Health, “Environmental Noise and Health in the UK,” Health Protection Agency, 2010.
  5. H. Walton, D. Dajnak and S. Beevers, “Understanding the Health Impacts of Air Pollution in London,” King’s College London, 2015.
  6. Public Health England, “Public Health Outcomes Framework: Indicator 3.01 – Fraction of mortality attributable to particulate air pollution,” [Online]. Available: http://www.phoutcomes.info/public-health-outcomes-framework#page/3/gid/1000043/pat/6/par/E12000007/ati/102/are/E09000012/iid/30101/age/230/sex/4. [Accessed November 2016].
  7. Greater London Authority, “Better Environment, Better Health: A GLA guide for London’s Boroughs, London Borough of Hackney,” 2013.
  8. Ad Hoc Expert Group on Noise and Health, “Environmental Noise and Health in the UK,” Health Protection Agency, 2010.