This section covers education and training outcomes for residents of Hackney and the City of London, highlighting the impact on health and wellbeing, key inequalities, and providing examples of effective local practice.

There are strong links between education, health and quality of life. Research has shown that positive wellbeing in pupils can lead to improved academic progression and engagement in school. 5 In turn, a good education significantly improves a child’s later life chances. Higher educational achievement provides access to better employment prospects and higher wages, and is associated with healthier lifestyles and better health outcomes (both in terms of physical and mental wellbeing). 6  While the causal relationships between education and health are complex to untangle, it is likely that by improving education for all, social inequalities in health will reduce.

Promoting the health and wellbeing of pupils and students within schools and colleges has the potential to improve their educational outcomes and their health and wellbeing outcomes.  Reflecting the key role of educational settings in promoting health, a revision to Ofsted’s Common Inspection Framework in September 2015 outlined a new duty for schools (and providers within schools) to support pupils to gain ‘knowledge of how to keep themselves healthy, including through exercising and healthy eating’. 7

Locally, schools make up an integral part of the response to meet the needs of children and young people as part of the Hackney Child Wellbeing Framework, which aims to respond appropriately to child and family needs at three different levels:

  • Universal – any identified need met by universal services (e.g. removing barriers to learning, or ensuring that all age appropriate checks are up to date as part of the Healthy Child Programme)
  • Universal Plus and/or Partnership Plus – where a child or young person’s needs require a multi-agency response (e.g. if a child has a chronic or serious illness that may need to be treated in a school setting, or is NEET)
  • Complex/high need – where a child’s need may require a statutory response (e.g. severe disability, or severe mental health need). 8

Throughout this section, we take a ‘life course’ approach to describing educational outcomes and experiences – through early years, primary school, secondary school, and beyond.

Box 1: Definitions used in this section

Academies and free schools – run by an academy trust and independent of the local authority.

Charedi – used to describe the various strictly observant Orthodox Jewish groups who make up the Orthodox Jewish community in the borough.

Education Health and Care Plans (EHCPs) – Statements of SEN have been replaced by EHCPs and they now cover ages 0-25 (previously 2-19 year olds). Plans are made for children and young people who need more support than is available through special educational needs support provided by the school or setting (early years and further education and training providers). EHCPs identify educational, health and social needs and set out the additional support to meet those needs.

Looked After Children (LAC) – this refers to a child who is being looked after by their local authority, which is also known as a child in care.

Maintained school – funded by the local authority (LA) and will be either a foundation school, community school, voluntary aided school or a voluntary controlled school (see Local Data section for further description).

NEET – a young person not in employment, education or training, used primarily as an indicator for young people aged 16-18, but can extend to 24 for some indicators.

Special educational needs (SEN) support – where a child or young person is identified as having SEN, schools or early years’ settings should take action to remove barriers to learning and put effective special educational provision in place. A graduated approach is used to draw on more detailed approaches, more frequent review and more specialist expertise to match interventions to the SEN of children and young people.



  1. Public Health England, “The link between health and wellbeing and attainment. A briefing for head teachers, governors,” 2014.
  2. The Marmot Review, “Fair Society, Healthy Lives,” 2010.
  3. The Marmot Review, “Fair Society, Healthy Lives,” 2010.
  4. Hackney Council, “The Hackney Child Wellbeing Framework,” 2014.
  5. Public Health England, “The link between health and wellbeing and attainment. A briefing for head teachers, governors,” 2014.
  6. The Marmot Review, “Fair Society, Healthy Lives,” 2010.
  7. The Marmot Review, “Fair Society, Healthy Lives,” 2010.
  8. Hackney Council, “The Hackney Child Wellbeing Framework,” 2014.