Community safety is related to actual and perceived levels of crime and the fear of crime in a local area. It is affected by a variety of issues, some of which are defined in Box 1, and can have significant impacts on the health and wellbeing of victims, families, witnesses and perpetrators.
Crime-related incidents, together with specific influences on community safety as outlined in Box 1, are explored in this section for Hackney and the City of London.
|Alcohol-related incidents – these are related to occurrences in which the consumption of alcohol is thought to have played a role. Data are presented in this section on alcohol-related London Ambulance Service attendances.
Anti-social behaviour (ASB) – the Crime and Disorder Act 1998 defines ASB as:
‘acting in a manner that caused or was likely to cause harassment, alarm or distress to one or more persons not of the same household as (the defendant)’. 1
Domestic violence – the cross-government definition is as follows: 2
‘any incident or pattern of incidents of controlling, coercive, threatening behaviour, violence or abuse between those aged 16 or over who are, or have been, intimate partners or family members regardless of gender or sexuality.’ The abuse can encompass, but is not limited to, the following types of abuse:
Gangs – these involve groups of individuals involved in criminal or anti-social behaviour.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) – this involves any behaviour within an intimate relationship that causes physical, psychological or sexual harm to those in the relationship. While it is acknowledged that women can been violent in relationships and that violence can occur in same-sex relationships, IPV involving a male perpetrator is recognised as one of the most common forms of violence against women. 3
Violence against Women and Girls (VAWG) – this is defined by the United Nations as ‘any action of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life.’
- Home Office, “Defining and measuring anti-social behaviour,” 2004
- Home Office, “Information for Local Areas on the change to the Definition of Domestic Violence and Abuse,” 2013.
- World Health Organization, “Understanding and addressing violence against women: Intimate partner violence,” 2012