While domestic violence and abuse can affect anyone, regardless of their characteristics or circumstances, there are known risk factors associated with a greater likelihood of experiencing or perpetrating domestic violence, such as a history of mental ill-health, unemployment and poverty. 7   Research also suggests that intimate partner violence, for women in particular, could be associated with social housing tenure, low household income, poor educational attainment and living in a deprived areas. 8  Hackney is the 11th most deprived local authority overall in England (see the ‘Living standards’ section, of this JSNA chapter), which suggests that local residents are at greater risk of experiencing domestic violence or becoming a perpetrator. 9

Both men and women can experience domestic violence, however women are more likely than men to be victims of high risk or severe domestic abuse. 10 The Crime Survey for England and Wales (CSEW) (March 2015) estimated that 27% of women and 13% of men aged 16 to 59 have experienced intimate violence (including both domestic abuse and intimate partner violence) in their lifetimes, with 8% of women and 4% of men having experienced intimate violence in the past year.  Applying these figures to local population numbers would indicate that 7,400 women and 4,000 men in Hackney and the City of London have experienced intimate violence in the last year. 11

A small minority (4%) of Hackney Multi-Agency Risk Assessment Conferenc ( MARAC) cases involved a male victim in 2015/16, which is in line with the SafeLives estimate of 4.8%.  The data also show that three quarters (73%) of referrals where ethnicity was recorded involved BAME victims.B When compared to Hackney’s resident population, the data suggest that White British residents are under-represented in the MARAC caseload.  In addition, just over 3% of victims in MARAC cases have a disability, which is less than the number predicted by SafeLives (almost 9%), while fewer than 2% of victims consider themselves to be either lesbian, gay, bisexual and/or transgender (similar to the SaveLives expected prevalence of just under 2%).

The CSEW suggests that almost 25% of gay and lesbian people and 33% of bisexual people have experienced intimate partner violence in their lifetime (compared with 17% of heterosexual people).  The figures increase to 28% (gay and lesbian) and 37% (bisexual) for any type of domestic abuse, compared to 20% of heterosexual people.

There is also evidence to suggest that disabled people have an increased risk of being a victim of domestic violence. 12

Notes

  1. Out of 506 Hackney MARAC cases, the ethnicity of 40 victims is unknown.  BAME figure includes all ethnicities other than White British
  2. Out of 506 Hackney MARAC cases, the ethnicity of 40 victims is unknown.  BAME figure includes all ethnicities other than White British

References

  1. A. Capaldi, N. Knoble and Shortt, “A systematic review of risk factrors for inimate partner violence,” Partner Abuse, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 231-280, 2012.
  2. H. Khalifeh, J. Hargreaves and Howard, “Intimate partner violence and socioeconomic deprivation in England: findings from a national cross-sectional survey,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 103, no. 3, pp. 462-472, 2013
  3. Hackney Council, “A Profile of Hackney, its People and Place,” 2016
  4.  SafeLives, “Insights Idva nationa dataset 2013-14: Adult independent domestic violence advisor (Idva) services,” 2015
  5. Office for National Statistics, “Chapter 4: Violence Crime and Sexual Offences – Intimate Personal Violence and Serious Sexual Assault,” 2015.
  6. H. Khalifeh, L. Howard and D. Osborn, “Violence against people with disability in England and Wales: findings from a national cross-sectional survey,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 2, 2013
  7. A. Capaldi, N. Knoble and Shortt, “A systematic review of risk factrors for inimate partner violence,” Partner Abuse, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 231-280, 2012.
  8. H. Khalifeh, J. Hargreaves and Howard, “Intimate partner violence and socioeconomic deprivation in England: findings from a national cross-sectional survey,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 103, no. 3, pp. 462-472, 2013
  9. Hackney Council, “A Profile of Hackney, its People and Place,” 2016
  10.  SafeLives, “Insights Idva nationa dataset 2013-14: Adult independent domestic violence advisor (Idva) services,” 2015
  11. Office for National Statistics, “Chapter 4: Violence Crime and Sexual Offences – Intimate Personal Violence and Serious Sexual Assault,” 2015.
  12. H. Khalifeh, L. Howard and D. Osborn, “Violence against people with disability in England and Wales: findings from a national cross-sectional survey,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 2, 2013