In general, smoking prevalence rates in men are higher than in women, but this varies considerably by ethnic group. For this reason, ethnicity and gender are considered here together, as considering either one without the other may mask important areas of need.

As Figure 1 shows, the gender difference in smoking prevalence varies significantly across ethnic groups in Hackney – from men being 30% more likely to smoke (in White British residents) to men being 400% more likely to smoke (in Pakistani communities).

Key points from Figure 1 are summarised below.

  • In all White ethnic groups, both men and women have higher smoking prevalence than their respective borough averages. Men are around a third more likely to smoke than women; and smoking prevalence rates in White Irish men and Other White men are among the highest in the borough.
  • In Mixed ethnic groups, rates are high for those of Mixed White and Black Caribbean heritage and low in those of Mixed White and Black African heritage (especially among women.
  • In South Asian groups, men are much more likely to smoke than women, with prevalence rates between one and a half and four times higher in men. Smoking prevalence is low among women in all groups. Pakistani men are slightly more likely to smoke than the average for all male residents and Bangladeshi men slightly less likely. Tobacco use may be underestimated in this community as cigarette smoking may be less prevalent than use of smokeless tobacco (such as chewing tobacco) which still carries health risks.4
  • In Black ethnic groups, there is a sharp difference between Black African and Black Caribbean residents. Black African men and women are both much less likely to smoke than average. However, Black Caribbean men have among the highest smoking prevalence rates in the borough (34%) and Black Caribbean women are only slightly less likely to smoke than the female average.
  • In Other ethnic groups, rates are lower than average, with men between one and two times more likely to smoke than women.

Further analysis of GP recorded data on Turkish and Kurdish residents (not presented in Figure 1) shows that men in these groups have extremely high rates of GP recorded smoking (39% and 37% respectively). Turkish women also have a relatively high smoking prevalence rate (26%), while the rate in Kurdish women is similar to the borough average (at 17%). Turkish and Kurdish residents may be counted in either the Other White or the Other broad ethnic group, so cannot be directly linked to one of the groups discussed above.

Additional analysis of GP recorded smoking prevalence rates in Vietnamese residents (again, not shown in Figure 1) reveals that male prevalence is high at 32%, while among females prevalence is very low at 6%.

Figure 2 shows that in terms of numbers of smokers:

  • most adult Hackney smokers are White (over 13,000 women and 16,000 men), which reflects both the borough population profile and the higher rates of smoking in these groups
  • there are significant numbers of Black residents who smoke (roughly 2,500 women and 4,500 men), again reflecting the local population profile as well as higher rates of smoking in the Black Caribbean community; in particular, there are more recorded Black Caribbean smokers than Black African smokers, despite Black African residents making up a larger proportion of the population.

Additional analysis shows that there are over 3,000 Turkish smokers (roughly 1,300 women and 1,900 men), almost 200 Kurdish smokers (roughly 50 women and 140 men) and almost 250 Vietnamese smokers (roughly 50 women and 190 men) in Hackney.[1]

[1] It is likely that Turkish and Kurdish residents are undercounted in official data sources such as the Census and GP records. The actual number of Turkish and Kurdish smokers may be larger. 5 6

Figure 1: Proportion of adult Hackney residents recorded as smokers by their GP, by ethnicity and gender (age 16+, 2016)

Source: GP data extracted from the GP register by CEG, Blizard Institute, April 2016.

Notes: Data covers Hackney residents registered with a GP in Hackney, the City of London, Tower Hamlets and Newham.

Figure 2: Number of adult Hackney residents recorded as smokers by their GP, by ethnicity and gender (age 16+, 2016)

Source: GP data extracted from the GP register by CEG, Blizard Institute, April 2016.

Notes: Data covers Hackney residents registered with a GP in Hackney, the City of London, Tower Hamlets and Newham.

As well as being less likely to smoke, women are also more likely to use SSS and, as with smoking prevalence, this varies by ethnicity (Figure 3).

The greatest differences in rates of SSS use between genders are seen in Black and Other ethnic groups, where women are twice as likely as men to be using local services.

We are unable to disaggregate the data into ethnic subgroups (such as Black African and Black Caribbean) due to differences in the way data has been recorded in the GP and SSS systems. This means that caution must be taken in interpreting these results, as we know  that some subgroups have very different smoking behaviours (as shown in Figure 1).

Figure 3: Hackney SSS use as a proportion of the number of Hackney residents recorded as smokers by their GP, by broad ethnic group (age 16+, 2015/16)

Source: Local SSS data recorded through SONAR system, extracted July 2016.

Notes: Data covers all SSS based in Hackney, no information available on borough of residence.

References

  1. NICE, “Smokeless tobacco: South Asian communities (PH39),” 2012.
  2. SPRC at Middlesex University and DAY-MER Turkish and Kurdish Community Centre, “Welfare Needs of Turkish and Kurdish Communities in London,” July 2013. [Online]. Available: http://sprc.info/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/DayMer-Final-Report-final.pdf. [Accessed 28 October 2016].
  3. Greater London Authority, “Turkish, Kurdish and Turkish Cypriot Communties in London,” February 2009. [Online]. Available: http://www.welllondon.org.uk/files/986/culture-tradition/23.%20Turkish,%20Kurdish%20and%20Cypriot%20Communities%20in%20London.pdf. [Accessed 28 October 2016].
  4. NICE, “Smokeless tobacco: South Asian communities (PH39),” 2012.
  5. SPRC at Middlesex University and DAY-MER Turkish and Kurdish Community Centre, “Welfare Needs of Turkish and Kurdish Communities in London,” July 2013. [Online]. Available: http://sprc.info/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/DayMer-Final-Report-final.pdf. [Accessed 28 October 2016].
  6. Greater London Authority, “Turkish, Kurdish and Turkish Cypriot Communties in London,” February 2009. [Online]. Available: http://www.welllondon.org.uk/files/986/culture-tradition/23.%20Turkish,%20Kurdish%20and%20Cypriot%20Communities%20in%20London.pdf. [Accessed 28 October 2016].