Looked after children

Some of the underlying reasons for entering care, such as substance misuse and chaotic lifestyles, are linked to deprivation. 10 Nationally, there is a moderate association11 between child poverty and rates of children going into care. 12

Domestic violence

Domestic violence can and does occur in all socio-economic groups, and the evidence on links between domestic violence and deprivation is mixed. However, there is some evidence suggesting that low income and high unemployment is linked to higher rates and severity of domestic violence. Similarly, factors associated with deprivation (substance dependency, financial stress) are also linked to higher rates and severity of domestic violence. 13

Parents with substance misuse issues

We do not have specific data, locally or nationally, on parents with substance misuse issues by deprivation. However, please see Section 7.4 of the ‘Mental health and substance misuse’ chapter of the JSNA for information about socio-economic variation in substance misuse in the wider population Hackney and the City.

Young carers

Nationally, over the time period 2004 – 2010, the median income for families including a younger carer was £5,000 less than that for families without a young carer. 14

Youth justice

Evidence on the links between deprivation and youth crime is mixed. 15  There is a moderate association16 between levels of deprivation and rates of first-time entrance into the youth justice system at the local authority level. 17

Child deaths

Infant mortality is strongly linked to socio-economic status, with rates for those born to parents in routine and manual occupations over twice as high as those born to parents in higher managerial, administrative and professional occupations. 18

 

References

  1. NICE, “Looked-after children and young people (LGB19),” June 2014. [Online]. Available: https://www.nice.org.uk/advice/lgb19/chapter/introduction. [Accessed 18 October 2016
  2. Analysis carried out on national data aggregated by local authority. Number of local authorities (N) 152, proportion of variance explained by child poverty (R2) 0.269.
  3. Public Health England, “Children and Young People’s Mental Health and Wellbeing,” [Online]. Available: https://fingertips.phe.org.uk/profile-group/mental-health/profile/cypmh/data. [Accessed 18 October 2016]
  4. D. M. Capaldi, N. B. Knoble, J. W. Shortt and H. K. Kim, “A Systematic Review of Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence,” Partner Abuse, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 213-280, 2012
  5. D. Hounsell, “Hidden from view: The experiences of young carers in England,” The Children’s Society, 2013
  6. R. Fergusson, “Risk, responsibilities and rights: Reassessing the ‘economic causes of crime’ thesis in a recession,” Youth Justice, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 31-56, 2013
  7. Analysis carried out on national data aggregated by local authority. Number of local authorities (N) 150, proportion of variance explained by deprivation (R2) 0.310.
  8. Ministry of Justice, “Youth justice annual statistics: 2014 to 2015,” 28 January 2016. [Online]. Available: https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/youth-justice-annual-statistics-2014-to-2015. [Accessed 17 October 2016]
  9. Office for National Statistics, “Childhood mortality in England and Wales: 2014,” 19 April 2016. [Online]. Available: http://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/birthsdeathsandmarriages/deaths/bulletins/childhoodinfantandperinatalmortalityinenglandandwales/2014#socio-economic-classification. [Accessed 18 October 2016]
  10. NICE, “Looked-after children and young people (LGB19),” June 2014. [Online]. Available: https://www.nice.org.uk/advice/lgb19/chapter/introduction. [Accessed 18 October 2016
  11. Analysis carried out on national data aggregated by local authority. Number of local authorities (N) 152, proportion of variance explained by child poverty (R2) 0.269.
  12. Public Health England, “Children and Young People’s Mental Health and Wellbeing,” [Online]. Available: https://fingertips.phe.org.uk/profile-group/mental-health/profile/cypmh/data. [Accessed 18 October 2016]
  13. D. M. Capaldi, N. B. Knoble, J. W. Shortt and H. K. Kim, “A Systematic Review of Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence,” Partner Abuse, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 213-280, 2012
  14. D. Hounsell, “Hidden from view: The experiences of young carers in England,” The Children’s Society, 2013
  15. R. Fergusson, “Risk, responsibilities and rights: Reassessing the ‘economic causes of crime’ thesis in a recession,” Youth Justice, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 31-56, 2013
  16. Analysis carried out on national data aggregated by local authority. Number of local authorities (N) 150, proportion of variance explained by deprivation (R2) 0.310.
  17. Ministry of Justice, “Youth justice annual statistics: 2014 to 2015,” 28 January 2016. [Online]. Available: https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/youth-justice-annual-statistics-2014-to-2015. [Accessed 17 October 2016]
  18. Office for National Statistics, “Childhood mortality in England and Wales: 2014,” 19 April 2016. [Online]. Available: http://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/birthsdeathsandmarriages/deaths/bulletins/childhoodinfantandperinatalmortalityinenglandandwales/2014#socio-economic-classification. [Accessed 18 October 2016]