Among children aged four and under in Hackney and the City, those of White or Black ethnicities have the highest rates of emergency admission and those of Mixed or Other backgrounds the lowest rates of admission (Figure 7).

Figure 7: Emergency attendances and emergency admissions in Hackney and City 0-4 year olds at HUHFT per head of population per two years by ethnicity (2013/14-2014/15)

Figure 7: Emergency attendances and emergency admissions in Hackney and City 0-4 year olds at HUHFT per head of population per two years by ethnicity (2013/14-2014/15)

Source: Homerton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust

Note: In order to allow sub-group analysis by ethnicity, rates per head of population have been calculated according to 2011 Census data.

Examining these broad ethnicity categories in more detail reveals that those from a White background have the greatest variation in attendance and admission rates by ethnic sub-group. Children aged 0-4 who are White Irish or of White Other origin have higher rates of both A&E attendance and emergency hospital admission than White British children (Figure 8).

Figure 8: Emergency attendances and emergency admissions in Hackney and City 0-4 year olds at HUHFT per head of population per two years by White ethnicity sub-group (2013/14-2014/15)

Figure 8: Emergency attendances and emergency admissions in Hackney and City 0-4 year olds at HUHFT per head of population per two years by White ethnicity sub-group (2013/14-2014/15)

Source: Homerton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust

Note: In order to allow sub-group analysis by ethnicity, rates per head of population have been calculated according to 2011 Census data.

From these data, it is possible to calculate the average number of emergency attendances per admission for each ethnic group (Figure 9). Those children of Other ethnicity had the greatest number of A&E attendances per admission, at 8.6. This may indicate that these children have a lower threshold for visiting A&E.

Figure 9: Rate of A&E attendances per emergency admission in Hackney and City 0-4 year olds at HUHFT by ethnicity (2013/14-2014/15)

Figure 9: Rate of A&E attendances per emergency admission in Hackney and City 0-4 year olds at HUHFT by ethnicity (2013/14-2014/15)

Source: Homerton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust

Note: In order to allow sub-group analysis by ethnicity, rates per head of population have been calculated according to 2011 Census data.

There is also variation in the number of attendances per admission within broad ethnic groups, with the largest variation again being among those of White ethnicity. At 7.9 attendances per admission, White Irish children have the highest number and White British children have the lowest (at 5.6).

Figure 10 demonstrates that there are very few statistically significant differences in admission rates by ethnicity for accidents and injuries, gastroenteritis or lower respiratory tract cases. Young children of Mixed ethnicity have a lower rate of lower respiratory tract admissions, but rates were more comparable to other ethnicities for gastroenteritis and accidents/injuries. Further breakdown is not available by ethnicity sub-group due to the low numbers involved.

Figure 10: Emergency admissions at HUHFT in 0-4 year olds per 1,000 children per two years by ethnicity and diagnosis (2013/14-2014/15)

Figure 10: Emergency admissions at HUHFT in 0-4 year olds per 1,000 children per two years by ethnicity and diagnosis (2013/14-2014/15)

Source: Homerton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust