Vaccine-preventable diseases

The ‘5 in 1’ vaccination is for diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio and haemophilus (DTaP/IPV/Hib) and children should have received three doses by their first birthday. This is achieved in 86% of Hackney and City of London children (2014/15). However, a number of children receive the vaccinations behind schedule; the coverage of all three doses by two years of age is 92%. 3

Eighty-eight per cent of children in Hackney and the City receive the first dose of MMR by two years of age (2014/15). A similar proportion (89%) have received both MMR doses by five years of age (2014/15). Hackney and the City of London have been affected by three measles outbreaks in the past 10 years (2006, 2007 and 2012). The largest of these outbreaks occurred in 2012, when Hackney saw the greatest number of confirmed cases in London (45 cases) – equating to a rate of 18.2 per 100,000 residents (all ages).

Eighty-six per cent of one year olds in City and Hackney have completed two doses of the pneumococcal vaccine by their first birthday.

In 2012 the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation recommended that the flu vaccination programme should cover all children aged between two and 17 years. The childhood flu vaccination programme is being extended in a phased manner – 2015/16 saw the programme being offered to all two, three and four year olds as well as children in school Years 1 and 2 for the first time. On average, Hackney had a 37% uptake of the Fluenz nasal spray flu vaccine across school Years 1 and 2, but data for the uptake of Fluenz in pre-school children covering the whole winter period have not yet been published.

Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination was introduced for girls into the UK schedule in 2008 – initially with the brand Cervarix, later replaced by Gardasil due to its added protection against some HPV strains responsible for genital warts. In 2014/15, 64% of girls age 12-13 in Hackney and 85% in City received both doses of the vaccine. 4

Sexually-transmitted infections

Half (49%) of Hackney’s 15-24 year olds were screened for chlamydia in 2014 as part of the National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP).B The detection rate (i.e. the proportion of results positive for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria) was 4,270 per 100,000 15-24 year olds over this same period – equating to 9% of included tests being positive.

Just over a third (37%) of the City of London’s 15-24 year olds were screened in 2014; detection rate statistics are not available due to the small numbers involved.

Notes

  1. Both the screening rate and detection rates are based on the number of screens and the number of positive results, respectively, with a maximum of one result every six weeks per individual included. Therefore a lower proportion of the population may have been covered than reported here, as some individuals may have been screened or diagnosed more than once per year (if at more than six-week intervals).
  2. Both the screening rate and detection rates are based on the number of screens and the number of positive results, respectively, with a maximum of one result every six weeks per individual included. Therefore a lower proportion of the population may have been covered than reported here, as some individuals may have been screened or diagnosed more than once per year (if at more than six-week intervals).

References

  1. “Public Health Profiles (‘Fingertips’),” Public Health England, 2015
  2. Public Health England, “Annual HPV vaccine coverage 2014 to 2015: by local authority and area team,” December 2015. [Online]. Available: https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/annual-hpv-vaccine-coverage-2014-to-2015-by-local-authority-and-area-team. [Accessed 15 November 2016
  3. “Public Health Profiles (‘Fingertips’),” Public Health England, 2015
  4. Public Health England, “Annual HPV vaccine coverage 2014 to 2015: by local authority and area team,” December 2015. [Online]. Available: https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/annual-hpv-vaccine-coverage-2014-to-2015-by-local-authority-and-area-team. [Accessed 15 November 2016